|June, 2001: While on a trip to Turkey, I visited the World War I battlefield, museum, and cemeteries on the Gallipoli penninsula on the Dardanelles Straits just outside Istanbul, Turkey, took some digital photos, and made up this page for your perusal:
Early in World War I, in 1915, the Allies consisted of Britain, France, Czarist Russia, Australia,and New Zealand. The United States entered the war later, in 1917. The Central Powers included Germany, Austria, and Ottoman Turkey. Russia desperately needed a deep water port, Istanbul, so the British devised a plan to capture the port by attacking through naval warfare and finally troop landings on Gallipoli, all of which failed miserably, causing the Allies to evacuate the penninsula in 1916. 34,000 British and Commonwealth soldiers, 9,000 French soldiers, and 500 Senegalese infantrymen were killed. The Turks, led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, lost 66,000 troops. In 1923 Turkey became the Republic of Turkey, with Mustafa Kemal elected as president. During World War II Turkey remained neutral.